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Ancient Sandstone Monuments

 ( Not Rated ) , By BeED Author   -  Geography Lower Secondary (IGCSE)

  2 hour(s)
   34   0   2
  Thursday, August 3, 2017
   Not Required
  27.6 MB

Course Info

About this Place Of Interest

Gunung Kawi - Bali’s oldest and largest ancient monument - is a temple and funerary complex that dates back to the 11th century. Located in Tampaksiring and about 10km away from north east of Ubud, the complex is located beside the sacred Pakerisan River in Sebatu Village. The main attraction of this complex are its tombs or candi, which are all carved into sandstone cliffs. Each tomb is about seven metres in height. Although they are referred to as “tombs”, they do not contain any human remains. Instead, these tombs provide evidence of how ancient rulers were deified by their subjects. The tombs were believed to be built by Anak Wungsu, the son of King Udayana and Queen Mahendradatta, also known as Gunapriya Dharmapatni. Anak Wungsu had two older brothers, named Airlangga (or Erlangga) and Marakata. Their father was believed to be the most famous ruler of Bali from the Warmadewa Dynasty. The tombs, which are said to be imitations of actual statues, are located in three sections. The first four are located at the Queen’s Tombs, on the left side (west) of the sacred Pakerisan River. The tombs are said to be dedicated to the king’s concubines. Meanwhile, five major tombs are located in the King’s Tomb section and are dedicated to the king and his beloved wives. These tombs are located on the right side (east) of the river. There is a small concrete bridge that connects the Queen’s Tomb and King’s Tomb sections. The so-called “tenth tomb” is located in the south and is believed to have been carved in honour of a priest or a royal minister. As visitors descend the approximately 315 stone steps, they are not only able to make quick stops at the many souvenir shops located along the route, but can also enjoy the beautiful scenery of the terraced paddy fields. This aside, visitors may also visit the pura or temple, which is located to the right of the King’s Tomb. Several meditation caves are located behind the temple and legend has it that many famous monks and pilgrims frequented the caves for meditation.

About this Learning Experience

In this Learning Experience, you will learn how weathering can deteriorate historical monuments, how energy of a river can erode different sizes of rocks and how rocks go through changes when they are subjected to different conditions over geological time. This Learning Experience is suitable for learners Year 3 and above. Note: The reflection phase will take place under Point C.

Syllabus Content

  • Lower Secondary:
  • Physical geography in relation to: weathering and rocks.
  • Understand how human and physical process interact to influence and change landscapes.
  • Upper Secondary
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the work of a river in eroding, transporting and depositing.
  • Explain the processes which operate within rivers.

Resources Needed


Pura Gunung Kawi Sebatu, Bali, Indonesia

Banjar Penaka, Tampaksiring, Gianyar, Tampaksiring, Bali 80552, Indonesia.


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